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苏州博物馆

2020年2月7日

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北方有佳人——内蒙古自治区文物考古研究院辽代女性文物展

展览时间: 2024年3月30日(周六) - 6月30日(周日) 展览地点: 本馆负一层特展厅

序言


“契丹家住云沙中,耆车如水马若龙。春来草色一万里,芍药牡丹相间红。”契丹,一个来去成谜的游牧民族,驰骋原野,车马为家。从部落到政权,契丹人建立起辉煌伟业,骁勇矫健,威服四方。契丹到底是怎样的一个游牧民族,又经历了怎样一段鲜为人知的历史?


契丹本意为“镔铁”,族如其名,勇猛剽悍是契丹留给世人的第一印象。早在公元554年成书的《魏书》中,便有他们的身影。此后几百年间,部落虽时有离合,实力亦此消彼长,但依然顽强地生存了下来。他们随寒暑、逐水草而居,在草原松漠间生息繁衍,不断积蓄实力,以待时机。公元916年,耶律阿保机统一契丹各部,建立契丹(后改国号为“辽”)。从此,一个由游牧民族建立的政权登上历史的舞台。公元938年,夺取后晋“幽云十六州”,领土扩张至长城沿线,威赫中原。公元1005年,与北宋签订澶渊之盟,此后和平逾百年,直至女真崛起,被金所灭。


契丹建立的大辽延续二百余年,全盛时雄踞中国半壁江山,疆域辽阔,五京并列,四方俱服,一时无两。因俗而治,带来文化上的包容与开放,“文物彬彬,不异中华”,华夷同风是其最鲜明的标志。


有别于以往,此次展览聚焦契丹女子,尤其是辽代贵族女性。“辽以鞍马为家,后妃往往长于射御,军旅田猎,未尝不从。”她们是草原游牧者的后裔,继承了祖先勇武强悍的基因,生来便善于骑射,马背与毡帐是最熟悉的地方;虽也对镜簪花,佩玉鸣鸾,但她们气度宽广,自信豪迈。如同这个游牧民族一样,契丹女子也不止一面。1986年陈国公主墓、2003年吐尔基山女性大墓、2015年辽圣宗贵妃墓相继发现,让我们对辽代贵族女性的神秘生活有了最为直观的了解。


展品涵盖金银器、铜器、玉器、漆器、玛瑙、琥珀、水晶、玻璃、陶瓷等逾百件(套):嵌宝石鎏金包银漆盒,工艺繁复,构思精巧,是契丹女子照容梳妆的心头好物;巧夺天工的琥珀饰件,充满异域风情的玻璃器皿,见证着东西汇融,文明多元;高翅鎏金银冠、錾花银靴、纯金面具,是保持本族风格与借鉴外来文化的完美结合;镶玉银马具、鸡冠壶、玉臂鞲、海东青鎏金铜饰件等,则是契丹女子“弯弓射猎本天性”“马牛到处即为家”的最佳例证。


千年之后,草色依旧,契丹却早已消失不见。唯有轻轻吹拂的风、静静流淌的河,还有那自由翱翔的雄鹰,讲述着远方曾经的辉煌。


感谢内蒙古自治区文物考古研究院对本次展览的大力支持!

苏州博物馆馆长 谢晓婷

进入展厅



Foreword

“Qidan people live in a boundless desert where their steeds and carriages run like flowing stream. The grassland stretches for ten thousand miles and various peonies turn red respectively when the spring arrives there.” As a nomadic tribe, Qidan people always galloped across the desert and lived with their horses and carriages without a definite residence or destination. Developed from a tribe to an empire, the vigorous and valiant Qidan people achieved brilliant success in establishing a formidable regime. Then, what kind of nomadic people is Qidan, and what is their little-known history?


The original meaning of Qidan referred to a kind of fine steel which is of high rigidity and sharpness. Just as its denotation, the first impression of Qidan people was brave and bold. The first literally record of Qidan was as early as in the book named The History of the Northern Wei Dynasty which was published in 554 AD. And in the following hundreds of years, the tribe of Qidan successfully struggled to survive despite of its occasional separation and weakness because they knew how to save strength to better grasp the opportunity of developing. Qidan people would locate their residence beside the water area and grassland according to the seasonal variation so as to make a living and give birth in an environment surrounded by grassland, pine forest and desert. In 916 AD, Yelv Abaoji, Emperor Taizu of Liao Dynasty, unified all branches of Qidan tribe into Qidan empire, which was renamed as Liao Dynasty. In 938 AD, Qidan captured the sixteen prefectures with Beijing and Datong City as their center in the Later Jin Dynasty and expanded their territory to the Great Wall,terrifying the Central Plains. But the peace lasted for over a hundred years since the Northen Song Dynasty signed the Chanyuan Treaty of Alliance with Qidan in 1005 AD until Qidan was destroyed by Jin Dynasty established by Jurchen people.


Liao Dynasty, founded by Qidan people, lasted for over two hundred years. In its prime, Liao Dynasty was the strongest country which had an extensive territory taking up half of China and five capitals to rule its people. Its ruling policies were binary by treating Qidan people and Han people in their own way, bringing cultural tolerance and openness which was distinctively marked by cultural assimilation between the Han people and minorities. An emperor of Liao Dynasty once said, “As long as we learn Han culture, we can be as gentle as Han people.”


Different from previous exhibitions, this exhibition focuses on the Qidan women, especially the aristocrat women in Liao Dynasty. It is recorded that “Qidan people in Liao Dynasty live with their horses. Their empresses and imperial concubines are all good at archery and riding. Besides, they also take part in wars and hunting.” Qidan women in Liao Dynasty, descendants of steppe nomads, inherited the genes of their ancestors who were brave and strong. The horseback and yurts were their most familiar place because they were born to riding and archery. Absolutely Qidan women also made themselves up and wore jade jewelry, but they showed an appearance of confidence and generosity. Just as the nomadic people, Qidan women were of complicate nature. The mysterious life of Qidan aristocrat women in Liao Dynasty has been unveiled for us since the tomb of Chen State’s Princess, the tomb of aristocrat women at Tuerji Mountain and the tomb of the imperial concubine of Emperor Shengzong of Liao Dynasty were unearthed in 1986, 2003 and 2015 respectively.


The exhibits include over a hundred pieces/sets unearthed relics in total such as gold and silver ware, bronzes, jade ware, lacquer ware, agates, amber ware, crystal ware, glassware, ceramics and so on. The gilded silver lacquer case inlaid with gems which has a complex technical process and ingenious design was Qidan women’s preference for making up. The exquisite amber ornaments and exotic glassware witnessed the integration of the East and the West as well as cultural diversity. The gilded silver crown with high wings, the silver boots with floral pattern and the gold mask were the perfect combination by maintaining their own culture and borrowing foreign culture. The harness inlaid with jade, the cockscomb-shaped pot, the jade arm shield and the gilded copper ornament in the shape of falcon, etc. were the best examples of Qidan women’s nature characterized by growing up on the horseback with bow and arrow.


A thousand years went by while the grassland turns green every spring. However, Qidan didn’t exist anymore a long time ago. Only the gently blowing wind, the quietly flowing river, and the free-flying eagle still tell the story of the glory of the past in the northern land!


Thanks for the great support of Inner Mongolia Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology!


 Director of Suzhou Museum

Xie Xiaoting