苏州博物馆关于推迟启动2020年度新志愿者招募工作的公告

各位尊敬的观众及市民朋友:

因新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情的发展,苏州博物馆2020年度新志愿者招募工作将推迟启动,具体启动时间请关注苏州博物馆官网或微信公众平台发布的通知。

感谢广大观众及市民朋友一直以来对苏博志愿社的关心与支持,苏博志愿社的全体志愿者也将持续提升服务水平,用热情、专业和耐心服务更多苏博观众。

同舟共济,共克时艰,相信我们定会战胜疫情!

苏州博物馆

2020年2月7日

关闭

海棠独香——大足石刻的发现与传承

展览时间: 2021年1月30日(周六) - 5月05日(周三) 展览地点: 负一层临展厅

 

一部中国石窟艺术史,是一部宗教史,也是一部文化史。凿山开窟,镌壁造像,汉魏以来,自西而东,代有兴建,北方的云冈、龙门为其荦荦大者。隋唐以后,流风迤逦而南,重庆大足石刻继起,自佛而道、而儒,融合三教,独树一帜,堪称南方之代表。

大足石刻始创于唐,中经五代,至两宋而臻于鼎盛,相关遗迹遍布大足西南、西北、东北诸山,凡二十余处,尤以宝顶山、北山、南山、石门山、石篆山为最。1999年12月,以“五山”为代表的大足石刻,入选“世界文化遗产”名录,令人瞩目。纵观诸山造像,如北山、宝顶之佛教造像,南山、半边庙之道教造像,石门、石篆、妙高山之三教融合造像,可一窥公元九至十三世纪中国石窟艺术风格之丕变与发展。儒、释、道三家在大足兼容并蓄,似乎意味着信仰从神坛走向人间,渐趋本土化、世俗化,显示出与塞北、江南迥异的地域特色。

此次展览得到重庆大足石刻研究院的大力支持,展示其馆藏以五山石窟为代表的大足石刻,谨在此表示衷心感谢。女作家张爱玲曾说“人生三大恨,一恨海棠无香”,唐宋时期的大足,隶属于昌州,一度以海棠有香名于世,唐人诗已赞其“一时开处一城香”。宋王象之《舆地纪胜》载“昌居万山间,地独宜海棠,邦人以其有香,颇敬重之,号海棠香国”,可惜明清以后,遽失其种。千载以来,惟诸山造像,曾沐其香,今与相对,一眼千年,如见海棠,花开漫山,独香苏城。

此为序。

 

                                                      苏州博物馆馆长 陈瑞近

 

Discovery and Inheritance of Dazu Rock Carvings

 

Foreword

 

The history of China’s grottoes art is also that of religion and of culture. People had been devoted to the construction of caves and stone statues from west China to east China for generations since Han dynasty to Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties (a period ranging from 3rd century B.C. to 6th century A.D.), with Yungang Grottoes located in Shanxi province and Longmen Grottoes located in He’nan province as representatives. Since Sui and Tang dynasties (6th – 10th century A.D.), this trend gradually came to south China, and Dazu Rock Carvings in Chongqing emerged and flourished. It developed as the harmonious synthesis of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism and became the representative grottoes of south China.

 

Dazu Rock Carvings first emerged in the Tang dynasty (7th – 10th century A.D.), developed in the Five Dynasties (10th century A.D.) and came to prime in the Song dynasty (10th – 13th century A.D.). Historical sites relating to Dazu Rock Carvings are spread over 20 places among the hills in southwest, northwest and northeast Dazu County. The most famous Rock Carvings in Dazu include Baodingshan Rock Carvings, Beishan Rock Carvings, Nanshan Rock Carvings, Shimenshan Rock Carvings and Shizhuanshan Rock Carvings. The Carvings were listed as a World Heritage Site in December, 1999, which attracted large attention. We could tell the development of China’s grottoes artistic style from 9th to 13th century A.D. if we take a look at the stone carvings, such as the Buddhist sculptures in Beishan Hill and Baodingshan Hill, the Taoist sculptures in Nanshan Hill and Banbian Temple, the integration of the three religions in Shimenshan Hill, Shizhuanshan Hill and Miaogaoshan Hill. The co-existence of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism at Dazu Rock Carvings probably revealed that the religious and mysterious were turning to more localized and secularized, a characteristic quite different from north of Great Wall and south of the Yangtze River.

 

We would like to extend sincere thanks to Chongqing Dazu Rock Carvings Research Institute for their support of this exhibition. The famous female writer Zhang Ailing once expressed that one of the three regrets in life is Chinese flowering crabapple without fragrance. Dazu County used to be part of Changzhou in the Tang and Song dynasties, well-known for its fragrant Chinese flowering crabapple. Some Tang poet once wrote that the aroma of this blooming flower would pervade the whole city. According to the records of a Song scholar, “Located among mountains and hills, Changzhou is quite suitable to plant Chinese flowering crabapple. People love it for its sweetness and call it Land of Chinese flowering crabapple.” It is a pity that all these disappeared since Ming and Qing dynasties. Only the stone sculptures are left immersed in its fragrance for thousands of years. Now we take a look at them, as if we could still see the flower all over that fills the Suzhou City with its scent.

 

Chen Ruijin

Director of Suzhou Museum

 

 

公元三世纪左右,源自古印度的石窟艺术,翻越苍山大漠,沿着商旅古道,循着驼铃之声,经西域传入中国,并在北丝绸之路和黄河流域历经了北魏灿烂、隋唐辉煌,产生了诸如敦煌、云冈、龙门石窟这些伟大遗迹。

然而,当唐末中国北方石窟慢慢褪去历史的光晕走向衰落之际,在长江流域的大足,雕刻家们却仍在挥锤凿石,以其兼收并蓄、吐故纳新的胸襟,创造了大足石刻这一惊世杰作。

大足石刻是重庆市大足区境内所有石窟造像的总称,迄今公布为各级文物保护单位的石窟点多达75处,造像5万余尊。它始凿于初唐,历经晚唐、五代,盛极于两宋,代表了公元9—13世纪世界石窟艺术的最高水平,是人类石窟艺术史上最后的一座丰碑。1999年,大足石刻以“无与伦比的天才的艺术杰作”等符合世界文化遗产的三项标准而被列入《世界遗产名录》。

然而,这座珍贵的艺术宝藏,曾长期湮没于荒山野岭之中。直至清嘉庆年间,著名考据学家、大足知县张澍寻幽探壑、拭迹辨文,才叩开了这座艺术殿堂的大门。其后百余年间,伴随着一次又一次的科学考察,在大足石刻发现之旅的纪念册上,写下了梁思成、杨家骆、马衡、顾颉刚、王朝文、刘开渠等一批又一批、一位又一位近现代中国学术界、文艺界熠熠生辉的名字。他们不仅用双手拂去历史的尘埃,还用渊博的学识揭开了这座宝藏的面纱。

在石窟艺术发展的漫长历程中,大足石刻对中国传统文化的兼收并蓄,对外来艺术的改造和转型,造就了中国美术史上的“大足石刻时代”。

在传承中发展,在发展中传承。本次展览由苏州博物馆、大足石刻博物馆精心策划合作举办,旨在让千年石刻从大足的山崖之上来到苏城的文化殿堂,并将其特有的文化品质和艺术气质分享给苏城人民,让独香海棠在江南水乡更添芬芳。

是为序。


                 大足石刻博物馆馆长  黎方银



 Foreword


Taking source in ancient India, the cave temple art can be traced back to the 3rd Century A.D. Accompanying with trade caravans, along ancient routes, it tramped over mountains and crossed the deserts, and finally arrived in China. From Northern Wei Dynasty to Sui and Tang Dynasties (386A.D.~907A.D.),  it was carried forward by ancient Chinese sculptors and embodied in a group of great relics in the Northern Silk Road and the Yellow River basin, such as Mogao Caves , Yungang Grottoes, Longmen Grottoes and Maijishan Grottoes.


It is regrettable that cave temple art of north China was in decline at the end of the Tang Dynasty. However, some sculptors created a masterwork in Yangtze River basin with exquisite workmanship and amazing ingenuity. That is the Dazu Rock Carvings.


The Dazu Rock Carvings mainly refers to all the cliff-side carvings within the Dazu District, Chongqing Municipality. There are 75 cave temple sites, including more than 50,000 statues, being protected for their historical and artistic values at different levels in Dazu. Started in early Tang Dynasty, the Dazu Rock Carvings went through the late Tang and the Five Dynasties and then went into its golden time in the Northern and the Southern Song Dynasties. The Dazu Rock Carvings representing the highest level from the 9th to the 13th century is the last monumental works in the history of world cave temple art. In 1999, the Dazu Rock Carvings was inscribed into the World Heritage List with three criteria that are consistent with the world's cultural heritage, such as “the masterpiece of unparalleled genius.”  


However, this art treasure has long been hidden in barren and desolate mountains. During the Jiaqing era of the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Shu, famous textual researcher and District Magistrate of Dazu, went to these mountains to discover and identify those carvings, and thus unlocked the gate of this artistic palace. In the next hundred years, with one after another scientific expeditions, many splendid names of people in the academic and artistic circles in the modern times which included Liang Sicheng, Yang Jialuo, Ma Heng, Gu Jiegang, Wang Zhaowen, Liu Kaiqu, have been written in the memorial book of the discovery journey of Dazu Rock Carvings. They not only cleared away the dust of history with hands, but also unveiled the treasure with their profound knowledge.


In the very long history of the grotto arts, Dazu Rock Carvings have taken in the traditional Chinese culture as well as the foreign art with certain transformation. Thus, the "Era of Dazu Rock Carvings" in the Chinese art history was created.


Develop with inheritance and inherit with development. This exhibition is held owing to the sincere cooperation between Suzhou Museum and Dazu Rock Carvings Museum. It aims to let thousand-year rock carvings come to the cultural palace of Suzhou from the mountain cliffs of Dazu, and to share its special cultural qualities as well as artistic spirits with people of Suzhou, and to bring the scent of Chinese flowering crabapples to this Jiangnan waterfront town.


This is the foreword.


Li Fangyin, Director of Dazu Rock Carvings Museum


展品

  • 佛头像

  • 千手观音脱落手指

  • 千手观音髹漆贴金试验手

  • 千手观音揭取的旧金箔

  • 千手观音脱落手指

  • 罗汉残像

  • 菩萨头像

  • 菩萨残像

  • 双侍扶座残像

  • 俗神像

  • 柳本尊信徒像

  • 菩萨残像

  • 菩萨残像

  • 菩萨组像

  • 罗汉残像

  • 勾栏童子像

  • 莲花童子

  • 醉酒人像

  • 宋墓勾栏童子图

  • 妇人启门图

  • 双女侍座图

  • 圆龛佛像

  • 武士头像

  • 侍女头像

  • 侍女头像

  • 俗神头像

  • 童子残像

  • 中元地官像

  • 三官大帝之一

  • 孔子石牌位

  • 诃利帝母残像

  • 真武大帝像

  • 香炉