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文人别派——苏州博物馆藏扬州八怪与海上画派合璧展

展览时间: 2017年10月17日(周二) - 11月17日(周五) 展览地点: 二楼五门书画展厅

文人别派——苏州博物馆藏扬州八怪与海上画派合璧展

天下三分明月夜,二分无赖是扬州。

清代中期,扬州一地,擅盐业与漕运之利,出现了富甲天下的扬州盐商。由于盐商对于艺术的热衷与赞助,在此地便兴起了一批身份相似与风格相近的画家群体,史称扬州八怪,或统称扬州画派。他们或为官场去职的州县官吏,如郑板桥、李鳝、李方膺、高凤翰;或为功名不如愿的落魄文士,如金农;也包括家境贫寒的职业画家,如罗聘、黄慎、边寿民、华岩等。他们在艺术观上重视个性表现﹐主张自立门户;在题材上除了擅长以四君子与松石等来表现一般文人画的清高绝俗之外﹐还善于运用象征﹑隐喻等手法表现对现实生活的观察,并通过题画诗文表达一定程度的社会关怀;在笔墨风格上﹐主要继承青藤白阳与八大石涛等人的水墨写意技巧﹐而不拘拘于形似。

扬州八怪之后,在文人画史上占有重要地位的乃是海上画派。其之所以兴起,市场因素也是直接的原因。1840年鸦片战争以后,上海开埠通商,逐渐由一个荻港渔村演变为十里洋场。清末张鸣珂云:“自海禁一开,贸易之盛,无过上海一隅,而以砚田为生者,亦皆于于而来,侨居卖画”。其中 “海上四任”任熊、任熏、任预、任颐与金石画派之赵之谦、吴昌硕乃为个中翘楚,另外如虚谷、蒲华、倪田、张熊、朱熊、胡公寿等亦卓然名家。其绘画以花卉、人物为主,或师承明末之陈洪绶,或取法四僧八怪而来,风格或工或写,皆力求入古出新、雅俗共赏,其中金石画派尤能承乾嘉考据之遗风,集诗书画印之专长,超越四王陈腐窠臼而以金石笔法入画,为传统文人画史别开一生面。

正因扬州八怪与海上画派在起源上有着相似的社会因素,在风格上二者也有着师承的渊源关系,故此次即特别遴选馆藏两派之精品合璧展出,从比较之中,观者或可窥见文人画派自清初以来逐渐走向多元流变之一斑。

Selected Works of Yangzhou Painting School

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Shanghai Painting School Collected by Suzhou Museum

Yangzhou was regarded as one of the best place in ancient Chinese poetry.

During the mid-Qing dynasty, salt dealers with enormous riches emerged in Yangzhou, thanks to the development of salt trade and canal transportation. They had a great interest in and provided sponsorship for art, which cultivated a group of painters with similar identity and artistic style, i.e. “Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou” or Yangzhou Painting School. Some of them were resigned officials, such as Zheng Xie, Li Shan, Li Fangying and Gao Fenghan. Some were impoverished literati who always failed in imperial examination, such as Jin Nong. Some were poverty-stricken professional painters, such as Luo Pin, Huang Shen, Bian Shoumin and Hua Yan. They insisted on individuality of art, and strived to form their own style. Apart from expressing aloofness and detachment from secularity by means of plum blossom, orchid, bamboo, chrysanthemum, pine tree and rock, they were also versed in portraying real life by symbolism and metaphor, as well as their social concerns by writings. In terms of painting technique, they mainly learned from Xu Wei, Chen Chun, Zhu Da and Shi Tao, who advocated spirit over form.

Following the “Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou” was Shanghai Painting School, which also took an important position in painting history. One of the direct causes for its emergence was the market. Since Shanghai opened to the outside world after the Opium War in 1840, it gradually turned from poverty to prosperity. In late Qing dynasty, Zhang Mingke said, “Since the ban on maritime trade was removed, trading in Shanghai was flourishing. Many scholars also gathered here to sell their paintings.” Among them, Ren Xiong, Ren Xun, Ren Yu and Ren Yi of Shanghai Painting School as well as Zhao Zhiqian and Wu Changshuo of Epigraphic Painting School proved to be the best-known. Xu Gu, Pu Hua, Ni Tian, Zhang Xiong, Zhu Xiong and Hu Gongshou were also great masters. Their paintings focused on flowers and figures. Some of them learned from Chen Hongshou of late Ming dynasty; some from the “Four Monks” and the “Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou”. Some emphasized a detailed description, while some spirit. But all of them made great efforts to learn from tradition and to innovate, making their paintings appeal to both the knowledgeable and the public. The Epigraphic Painting School was able to get out of the framework set by Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui and Wang Yuanqi, and combined epigraphic technique with painting, by means of conducting research and their talents in poetry, calligraphy, painting and seal, thus bringing a fresh change to traditional Chinese painting.

Yangzhou Painting School and Shanghai Painting School emerged against similar social background. Shanghai Painting School also inherited from Yangzhou Painting School. That is why we have specially selected the works of the two painting schools collected by Suzhou Museum and put them together for exhibition. By making a comparison, the audiences will detect the gradual diversification of painting schools since early Qing dynasty.

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