×

取法乎上——苏博藏历代书法临古特展

展览时间: 2018年9月08日(周六) - 10月07日(周日) 展览地点: 苏州博物馆二楼书画厅

序言

世人但学兰亭面

欲换凡骨无金丹

昔人于书画二艺,首重师古,未有不师古而能名世者。绘画之师古,即六法之“传移模写”;而书法之师古,则在名迹之钩临摹搨。此引黄山谷论学《兰亭》诗句,正道出书法师古临摹之难也。

所谓“临”,即以纸置古帖旁,观其形势而学之,若临渊之临;所谓“摹”,即以薄纸覆古帖上,随其细大而搨之,若摹画之摹。临书多得古人笔意,易失古人位置;摹书易得古人位置,而多失古人笔意。此乃昔人论临摹之意义与工用也。

夫操千曲而后晓声,观千剑而后识器。唐宋以来临摹之范本,除《兰亭》而外,单刻帖若钟繇《宣示表》、皇象《急就章》、王羲之《黄庭经》《十七帖》、王献之《十三行》、智永《真草千文》、怀仁《集王圣教》、孙过庭《书谱》,乃至为煊赫有名者,学者称习、历代不辍;丛帖若北宋之《淳化阁帖》《绛帖》《大观帖》《汝帖》、明无锡华氏《真赏斋帖》、吴门文氏《停云馆帖》、金坛王氏《郁岡斋帖》、松江董氏《戏鸿堂帖》、歙县吴廷《余清斋帖》、清初涿州冯铨《快雪堂帖》、乾隆内府《三希堂法帖》,多出名家甄选与妙手摹勒,可谓洋洋大观、典型具在。虽宋元以来,私家以刻帖标榜风雅往往而有,诸家选刻者亦难免真伪掺杂;然其沾溉后学,实殊非浅鲜。

苏州博物馆藏有不少元明以来的名家临古之作,本次展览即特别遴选其精妙者凡三十余件,兼真草篆隶之体、备卷轴屏册之式。其中若赵孟頫之临《定武兰亭》、女史曹贞秀之临《玉版十三行》、无名氏之临《智永千字文》,皆属名家旧藏,堪称难得一见的铭心之物;而王铎、姜宸英之临《阁帖》、王澍之临《米帖》、吴昌硕之临《石鼓文》等,或形神俱肖、或略参己意,诸家日常临池之用功,于此即可窥一斑。观者览之,若更于临摹之外,考见历代书家风格之渊源、流派之传承,则斯亦研究书史之一助。


陈瑞近


Preface

Everyman models after the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion,

But ends up in failure to rival it.

Scholars in ancient times would pay more attention to modeling after predecessors when it came to calligraphy and paintings. It had never happened that someone could make his fame without following the style of antiquity. The reproduction of ancient paintings would be aimed to create copies, while that of ancient calligraphies focus on imitation of well-known models. The poem cited above describes the hardships that one has to overcome in practicecalligraphies after ancient models.

There are primarily two methods to do practice calligraphies. One is to put the paper beside the model and see how the strokes go. In this way, we tend to appreciate its charm rather than simply copy it stroke by stroke. The other is to cover the model with a piece of thin paper and make duplications. In this way, we are able to copy it more accurately but are apt to neglect its internal spirit.

Onlythose who have practiced thousands of pieces of music will really comprehend its essence, while only those who have seen thousands of swords are able to recognize the best one. Apart from the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion, model calligraphies since Tang and Song dynasty includethose of Zhong You, Huang Xiang, Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi, Monk Zhiyong, Monk Huairen, Sun Guoting, all of which have been renowned and practiced for generations. Other model calligraphies also include those written by different scholars of the Northern Song dynasty, Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty, most of which were finished by celebrated literati. Although since the Song and Yuan dynasty, some scholars might keep model calligraphies to themselves to pride themselves on elegance, it is inevitable that the authentic calligraphies are mixed up with false ones, but the later generations still benefit a lot from them.

Suzhou Museumhas collected considerable practice calligraphies since the Yuan and Ming dynasty. This exhibition has selected altogether over thirty pieces from them in various scripts and forms. Many of them used to be collections of celebrities and are rarely seen, such as the works of Zhao Mengfu and Cao Zhenxiu. Some of the practice calligraphies manifest the integration of form and spirit, and some of them display the calligrapher’s own characteristics, such as the works of Wang Duo, Jiang Chenying, Wang Shuzhi and Wu Changshuo. It can also be detected that the calligraphers have made great efforts to improve their skill. The audiences are also able to know more about the development of various styles and inheritance of different schools, which is of help to study the history of calligraphy.


发表评论 暂无评论
确认
  • 全部评论
  • 我的评论